Aerosol Jet-Printed High-Aspect Ratio Micro-Needle Electrode Arrays Applied for Human Cerebral Organoids and 3D Neurospheroid Networks
Sabine Zips, Boxin Huang, Salammbô Hotte, Lukas Hiendlmeier, Chen Wang, Karthyayani Rajamani, Olivier Buriez, George Al Boustani, Yong Chen, Bernhard Wolfrum, and Ayako Yamada
The human brain is a complex and poorly accessible organ. Thus, new tools are required for studying the neural function in a controllable environment that preserves multicellular interaction and neuronal wiring. In particular, high-throughput methods that alleviate the need for animal experiments are essential for future studies. Recent developments of induced pluripotent stem cell technologies have enabled in vitro modeling of the human brain by creating three-dimensional brain tissue mimic structures. To leverage these new technologies, a systematic and versatile approach for evaluating neuronal activity at larger tissue depths within the regime of tens to hundreds of micrometers is required. Here, we present an aerosol-jet- and inkjet-printing-based method to fabricate microelectrode arrays, equipped with high-aspect ratio μ-needle electrodes that penetrate 3D neural network assemblies. The arrays have been successfully applied for electrophysiological recordings on interconnected neurospheroids formed on an engineered substrate and on cerebral organoids, both derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells.