Nanoparticles of Metal-Organic Frameworks: On the Road to In Vivo Efficacy in Biomedicine

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Nanoparticles of Metal-Organic Frameworks: On the Road to In Vivo Efficacy in Biomedicine, Adv. Mater. 2018, 1707365

 

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) or porous coordination polymers were first reported in the late 1980s and this domain started to expand continuously since the end of the 1990s. The structure and composition of these crystalline hybrid solids can easily be tuned through the almost infinite possible combination of metal inorganic subunits (clusters, chains or layers of transition metals, 3p, lanthanides, etc.) and/or constitutive organic ligands (carboxylates, phosphonates, azolates, etc.) leading to thousands of MOFs with unique features (and references therein). MOFs exhibit therefore highly porous structures that span over a large range of pore sizes (micro- or mesopores) or pore shapes (cages, channels, etc.), and possess either rigid or flexible frameworks. One can also further tune their polar/apolar character through the use of polar or apolar organic functionalities, often carried out through direct synthesis or postsynthesis modification on the ligand or grafted on the metal sites, which strongly impacts the sorption properties of the solids. As a consequence, a large number of potential applications of MOFs have been proposed to date such as gas adsorption/storage or separation, catalysis, energy, optical properties, sensing, and biomedicine, among others.

 

In conclusion, MOFs are promising materials for biomedical applications but before to be able to reach the clinical arena, MOF scientists should take advantage of the knowledge acquired during decades by others and go further in solving the relevant limitations of other already developed nanomedicines.

 

 

 

Adv. Mater. 2018, 1707365

 

In the past few years, numerous studies have demonstrated the great potential of nano particles of metal-organic frameworks (nanoMOFs) at the preclinical level for biomedical applications. Many of them were reported very recently based on their bioactive composition, anticancer application, or from a general drug delivery/theranostic perspective. In this review, the authors aim at providing a global view of the studies that evaluated MOFs’ biomedical applications at the preclinical stage, when in vivo tests are described either for pharmacological applications or for toxicity evaluation. The authors first describe the current surface engineering approaches that are crucial to understand the in vivo behavior of the nanoMOFs. Finally, after a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the in vivo studies reported with MOFs so far, and considering the general evolution of the drug delivery science, the authors suggest new directions for future research in the use of nanoMOFs for biomedical applications.

 

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Nanoparticles of Metal-Organic Frameworks: On the Road to In Vivo Efficacy in Biomedicine

 

Teresa Simon-Yarza, Angelika Mielcarek, Patrick Couvreur & Christian Serre

 

Adv. Mater. 2018, 1707365

 

DOI: 10.1002/adma.201707365